Dialysis membranes are the basic element of a hemodialyzer. Synthetic and natural materials characterized by various fiber arrangements are used in their production. The most up-to-date ones are made of synthetic polymers such as polyamide, phosphatidylserine (PS), polyacrylonitrile-based fiber (PAN), polyarylethersulfone, polyethersulfone, or polymethylmethacrylate. Dialysis membranes are characterized by the ability to remove uremic molecules, which can be divided into small water-soluble compounds, protein-bound compounds and larger "middle molecules". Newer membranes such as medium cut off membranes (MCO) allow the removal of a wider spectrum of uremic molecules, which reduces the risk of late complications of dialysis. Dialysis membranes are used in therapy methods such as low flux, high flux or HDx therapy. An important aim in dialysis membrane development is to increase their biocompatibility. Insufficient biocompatibility can result in complement activation or platelet activation, which can lead to an increased risk of cardiovascular complications.